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:zz: Nonsegregation, No Things (was Re: [zzdev] A big suggestion

Hi Benjamin--

I haven't had time to look at your suggestion in detail,
 but I think there may be a miscommunication.

You offer
>A recommendation to applitude programmers to split up their applitude's
>data into "things," as small as possible, which adhere to ...

The whole point of ZigZag is that separate aspects of
 the world are *not* separated into different things.

An applitude is a zone of functionality which is *not*
 split off.

A key problem with the conventional computer world
 (like OpenDoc etc.) is this segregation.

>I've also included a detailed specification of a possible
>set of interfaces inside this system. 

That's what the whole design is about-- especially
 figuring out which dimensions and constructs work best.

Anyway, I look forward to studying your piece.

Best, Ted

At 11:54 AM 7/27/00 +0200, you wrote:
>Hi everyone,
>sorry for the delay -- it was harder to find a telephone line than I had
>expected. Now, I still can't exactly ask questions because I have to get
>familiar with the new code that has shown up in the meantime first.
>Pondering about my programming system applitude, the formatted text
>applitude and other applitudes, though, something else has formed in my
>mind which, I think, deserves consideration on your part: a suggestion
>for a system with the function of systems like OLE or OpenDoc, linking
>different applitudes together. Besides the general description of the
>suggestion, I've also included a detailed specification of a possible
>set of interfaces inside this system. Probably I haven't thought of
>everything, as this is a very first draft; but if the system itself
>makes sense to you, tell me your problems with the spec, and I will try
>to make a better one.
>Hope this is of help,
>- Benja 
>A recommendation to applitude programmers to split up their applitude's
>data into "things," as small as possible, which adhere to a common
>interface (not unlike OLE, but better), so that they can be reused in
>other applitudes.
>In the draft for Cybertext, you (Tuomas & Vesa?) say: "The interesting
>thing about applitudes is that they can be designed to be connected to
>each other in a more fine-grained fashion than current embedding
>frameworks such as Bonobo, KParts, or OLE/COM." I think such connections
>can happen on two levels: custom applitude connections, which are
>designed to connect a special applitude A to a special applitude B; and
>connections within a broader framework, where all applitudes have a
>common interface through witch they can communicate with each other. Of
>course you can always connect a cell which has a special meaning to
>applitude A to a cell which has a special meaning to applitude B on a
>dimension of your own, but these connections will show in neither
>applitude's views; this is exactly what we need, though. For example, we
>want to include a picture in a text; ZigZag should empower us to use ANY
>kind of picture supported by ANY gZZ applitude, not only those the text
>applitude was designed to support. This, after all, is what we mean by
>breaking up monolithic applications, isn't it?
>So, what we need for gZZ is something with the same function as KParts
>or OLE/COM; not with the code overhead, as we're going to use the ZZ
>model (that's gZZ's main advantage here), but with the function of
>inserting one applitude's stuff into another applitude's stuff. We want
>it to be more flexible than those examples, though, and we can have that.
>My suggestion is to represent data structured into things -- that's a
>bunch of cells refered to by a handle. This is an extension of the
>"everything is a cell" concept, not something to complement it; the idea
>is that the handle cell is the "outside" of the thing, whose "inside" is
>the bunch of cells. The problem is that not everything can be a cell in
>the current gZZ system; a bunch of cells can never be one cell, and each
>nontrivial data structure needs a bunch of cells, not only one. A very
>basic operation a handle should support, for example, is that marking
>the handle marks all cells of the thing as well (or optionally does);
>this way, a user can send the whole item by eMail easily. However, how
>this exactly works is outside the scope of this suggestion draft.
>By Ted's definition (cited from memory), a thing is an item that can be
>used (accessed) by a ZZ programmer; and an item is anything that is of
>interest for a ZZ user. Mine is just an operational definition, but I
>MEAN the same.
>I suggest that a text vstream, for example, be a thing. It can contain
>other things, like pictures (this is an extension of the vstream
>concept, but I think a good one). On the other hand, it can be contained
>in other things, like a spreadsheet. It can be contained in *multiple*
>other things, by cloning the handle. As the handle is the "outside" of
>the thing, cloning it creates a second "outside," with the SAME
>"inside." This is not exactly Euclidean, but that shouldn't be a
>problem. :)
>Things inside things don't need to be a different "kind" of thing than
>the thing they're in. (Possible name for things inside things:
>subthings.) A text vstream can contain another text vstream, and this is
>my suggestion for your "structured text," Tuomas. You can make different
>chapters (text vstream things) and put them into a book (another text
>vstream thing). However, you can also clone them (their handles) into
>your TODO list, or you can put them into weird constructs (yeah, you can
>clone a chapter into itself, although it doesn't make much sense to ME).
>You can as well use them as subthings of totally different things, and
>this might be more exciting. Using them in an item cloud (more general
>form of a text cloud) comes to mind.
>Now, a thing knows different ways to "visualize" itself. (How exactly
>this works is part of the specification, below.) This concept is broader
>than it sounds: I consider a sound output "kind" of a visualization, for
>example. That way, you can have a sound vstream inside another sound
>vstream the same way as with text vstreams, and they will play right.
>But the same sound vstream items can have a visualization on the screen;
>this is a real visualization, then. Maybe the more general concept
>should be called "accesibilisation," but this sounds to complex and
>artificial for me.
>A visualisation (my abbrevation: viz), thus, is a way to bring a thing,
>as a whole, to the user. Screen visualizations will commonly be rasters
>(although you could say that special-case gZZ flobs are part of the
>An applitude will now define a number of "thing types." A text vstream
>applitude will only define the text vstream thing type, but more complex
>applitudes might define more complex thing types. All things of the same
>thing type are connected to a list of possible visualizations for this
>thing type. There's no formal definition; but it's implicit that a thing
>connected to a visualization have to be readable by the visualization.
>All the parameters the visualization needs have to be there, etc.
>A visualization is only referenced from the structure; the actual
>visualization is the Java class which does the layouting on the screen,
>prepares the sound output, etc. These visualizations are grouped into
>viz typees, which, unlike thing types, have to be well-defined in the
>Java manner of an Interface (or an abstract class). Now, when the viz
>code of a thing finds a subthing (e.g. a chapter vstream in a book
>vstream), it calls gZZ to get a certain visualization of this subthing.
>A text vstream requests a text layout viz, for example; this viz is
>defined to be able to layout a text line-by-line (so that it can be
>billowed). If there's no such viz available, it requests a viz layouting
>the whole subthing into a rectangular area. This works with pictures; it
>also works with virtually everything else, like sound things which are
>visually represented, etc.
>The box viz is also used to layout a thing into a cell raster. That's
>true, a thing's outside (it's handle) isn't shown as a label, but as a
>visualization of the thing. This seems most useful, as often you don't
>want to assign a label (I don't think of my series of dog pics as dog
>pic 1, dog pic 2, dog pic 3 -- that's a ideosyncracy invented by the
>file system). If you want labels or icons anyway, no problem. There will
>be a label applitude which defines a label thing type, visualized as a
>label, but containing as a subthing the thing which is meant by the
>label; pressing the right key will jump right into editing the subthing,
>just like it would if you'd use the thing directly. Same goes for icons.
>Each thing (more accurately: each thing type) has a list of possible
>visualizations, ordered by preference. Also, there is a list of standard
>"viz converters:" the most important example being the converter from a
>text viz to a box viz. Such a converter is never invoked by the user;
>the system uses them internally. The converter implements the interface
>of the viz type they convert to, but the implementation internally calls
>the viz converted from. The converter mentioned above is invoked all the
>time, over and over, to convert from the standard text viz of non-handle
>cells (representing the cell's contents) to the box viz used by the cell
>rasters. (Although possibly this is to slow and there'll be an
>efficiency hack which goes around visualization search in this special
>case.) When an item doesn't define the viz type requested, gZZ searches
>its converter list for a conversion to the desired viz type, and if it
>finds it, it returns an instance of the converter, which "masks" the
>"real" viz.
>An interesting special-case viz is the HTML viz. This doesn't put
>anything on the screen, but generates an HTML document representing the
>thing. This can be used in conjunction with Ted's idea of http://
>requests returning a HTML page, while xu:// requests return the cells
>(or other Xanadu data). The HTML viz would be invoked to create the
>http:// results.
>Another interesting viz, which would be helpful for my applitude, would
>be an "execution viz," which doesn't visualize something on the screen,
>but instead executes the thing. If the interface for this is general
>enough, it allows combination of different gZZ programming languages.
>If no viz of the requested type and no conversion can be found, the
>layouter requesting the viz must define what to do; it might inform the
>user that there was an error, or it might just ignore the subthing.
>Maybe it could render the handle cell's contents instead, if any.
>Some UI considerations: A text thing might want to blend in other things
>containing text seamlessly; that means that the insertion cursor, when
>it it moved over the edge to another thing, is just passed on to that
>thing. This is represented by moving the zz cursor so that it points
>into the subthing. With pictures, on the other hand, it might be
>desirable not to pass on the cursor, but to put the cursor onto the
>whole thing; this is done by moving the zz cursor to the handle of the
>subthing. Which of these behaviors is used is in the hands of the thing
>which has the insertion cursor before it is moved.
>Things are useful for drag&drop between applitudes. When you start to
>drag, the gZZ flob reacting to the mouse event is called for a cell
>which is dragged. This can be just a cell, or it can be a handle to a
>thing. You can drop a thing virtually everywhere. The two places where
>you can store things you don't need at the moment are clouds and the
>cell rasters themselves. Clouds are useful when you don't need a special
>structure, just want to store a group of things. If you want to order
>things in arbitrary structures, you drag them on a cell raster. Here,
>every cell has four sections (left, up, right, and down); they are
>divided by two diagonal lines, from the upper left corner of the cell to
>the lower right, and from the upper right to the lower left. If you drop
>a thing on one of the sections, it is inserted in the associated
>direction from the cell: dragging it in the down section inserts the
>thing on Y+ from the cell (or rather, inserts the thing's handle). When
>you shift-drag a thing, its handle is cloned. (The clone of a handle is
>considered a handle of the same thing.) Note that you can drag&drop
>non-handle cells the same way, including cloning.
>Something that deserves some consideration are the editing modes. I
>would like both in-place editing and own window editing, but in-place
>editing should be the standard and own window editing should have to be
>requested by the user. This, by the way, would be helpful for normal
>cells as well, when you use a raster in which the text you need doesn't
>fit: you'd press one key and a new window pops up in which you can enter
>a word-wrapped text as long as you desire.
>In-place editing poses a tricky problem, though: which things can
>currently be edited and which can't? If I have a tree of text vstream
>things, then I want to be able to edit the different parts of my text
>seamlessly: moving from one text to another with the insertion cursor
>should just do what I expect, go to that other text, and shouldn't mark
>the other text first and require me to hit "edit" before I can change
>it. On the other hand, if I include a small icon in my text, I might not
>want that: I might want to treat the icon just like a character in my
>text, instead of "jumping right into it." The thing is that from there,
>hitting the Right cursor key might not get me out of the icon, but move
>my cursor INSIDE the icon somehow -- not exactly what I desire.
>First, I would say that when a thing is currently editable, then the
>view's cursor accurses a cell inside that thing; if a thing is accursed,
>but not editable, then the view's cursor accurses the handle of the
>thing, not something inside the thing itself. This has complex
>implications for cursor-centric views, though. It is probably necessary
>to have a second cursor when in editing mode, an edit cursor. For
>example, we might have a text vstream thing, and we might put a handle
>to it somewhere. When we go to the handle cell (which shows the vstream
>as a whole) and hit the edit key, the handle cell with the vstream gets
>editable. We have an insertion cursor. But this insertion cursor needs
>to be inside the vstream! Still, the view should be centered on the
>handle cell. We want to see the outside of the vstream, not its inside.
>So, during editing, I suggest we have a second cursor, the insertion
>cursor or more generally edit cursor. This cursor is inside the thing
>that is currently edited. This thing gets all key events -- actually,
>the viz that has drawn the thing on the screen is called for a list of
>key bindings, which are then interpreted by gZZ. There's one exception,
>the ESC key (or something similar), which escapes the editing mode.
>(Another key might be specified for this in the system configuration,
>but it is important that this key overrides all thing-specific key
>bindings.) When the edit cursor is moved inside the thing, now, and
>"hits" a subthing, the thing decides if it is "given" to the subthing,
>or if the thing wants to keep it. If the latter, hitting TAB or some
>other key specified in the thing's key bindings will give the edit
>cursor to the subthing, making it editable. (Hitting TAB when the edit
>cursor is not on a subthing's handle should give the edit cursor back to
>the next higher thing, positioning it on the handle for the current
>thing, making the current thing non-editable.)
>Something I would like are menus specific to the thing currently edited.
>When I edit a text vstream, the menu should show a cut command; when I
>edit a figure, the menu should show an insert circle command. The menu
>should always be the context menu for the thing that has the edit
>cursor. How the view presents the menu to the user is the business of
>the view; which cell is the beginning of the menu is the business of the
>thing's viz.
>The beauty of the "everything is a thing which can be visualized" system
>is that it unifies applitudes much more than OLE could ever dream of. It
>also makes currently existing and planned applitudes easier to
>implement, because it boosts reusability. And, to me, it seems to be
>very consistent with the overall ZZ philosophy.
>I'd greatly appreciate discussion! ;)
>SPEC (Visualization): A viz extends a viz type (abstract class which
>implements ZZVisualization). It has a constructor which takes as an
>argument the "thing home cell" (see below) it shall visualize as its
>only parameter. 
>SPEC (Visualization type): A viz type is an abstract class which
>specifies an interface for visualizing a thing -- e.g., the box viz type
>specifies a function which is called with a ZZGraphics object and the
>boundaries in which to layout. The viz type class contains a static
>final member of type Class, called viztype, which is set to the viz type
>class itself; this way, the viz type of subclasses can be found out quickly.
>SPEC (Visualization converter): Like a visualization, but takes a viz of
>a different viz type as the parameter of the constructor. Masks the viz
>it gets at initialisation. Has a static final member "fromviztype,"
>which is like viztype, but specifies the viztype the constructor takes
>as its argument.
>SPEC (Naming convention): It is recommended that viz type class names
>have the form ZZ<TypeName>VizType and individual vizzes have the form
>ZZ<ThingName><TypeName>Viz, for example ZZCellBoxViz for the box viz of
>a cell. Inner classes may leave the zz out, and, when it is clear to
>which thing type they belong, even the thing name; a module only dealing
>with text vstreams may just have a BoxViz inside, because its clear that
>the box viz for a text vstream is meant.
>SPEC ("Thing home cell"): This is the "first" cell of a thing. This is
>given to a viz at instantiation, and it also is used to determine a
>thing's possible visualizations.
>RATIONALE: Why don't we use the handle? Because the handle is not the
>thing itself; it is a cell that contains the whole thing.
>SPEC (Handle): The original handle of a thing is connected to the "thing
>home cell" on d.handle. The thing home cell is the negward neighbour of
>the handle. The handle cell has no posward neighbours on this dimension.
>All clones of this original handle are considered handles of the same thing.
>SPEC (Visualizations for a thing): From the "thing home cell", go to the
>posend on d.visualization. From here posward on d.visualization-set (or
>d.2?) is the list of possible visualizations. Empty cells are ignored;
>if a cell except the first one is connected along d.visualization, count
>the visualization set at the posend of that rank as visualizations of
>the thing, too. Each visualization is represented either in the form
>"ClassName," where the class with this name resides in fi.iki.lukka, or
>"ModuleName.InnerClass," where the module resides in fi.iki.lukka.module
>and InnerClass is a static subclass.
>RATIONALE: It is expected that applitudes will connect all things of the
>same thing type, i.e. the same internal structure, on d.visualization.
>If they want to group visualizations, they can use the recursive
>structure which goes along d.visualization, again.
>RATIONALE (Reference by string): This probably ought to change at some
>point, but it's consistent with the rest of the system right now.
>SPEC (Viz searching function): This function (residing SOMEWHERE, maybe
>ZZUtils) finds the best viz of a given type for a given thing. It starts
>with the posend of d.visualization from the "thing home cell", and
>progresses on d.visualization-set (or d.2?). If it finds a cell with a
>posward connection on d.visualization-set (d.2), it uses the same
>algorithm recursively on the posend of that rank. The first viz whose
>viztype member equals the requested viztype is returned. If no viz
>matches, the viz convertion search is invoked (see below). If there
>still isn't any match, null is returned.
>SPEC (Viz conversion search): In the system configuration, there's a viz
>conversion list listing viz convertion classes, which are referenced in
>the same way as the viz classes for things. Some efficiency hack ought
>to store this converters internally. Now the "shortest path conversion"
>is searched: preferably only one conversion, if necessary two, if that
>doesn't work three etc. I'm sure you can come up with a better internal
>algorithm for this that I.
>"SPEC" (Drag&Drop events): This should be consistent with the existing
>flob code, which I'm not familiar with. Drag&Copy events (commonly
>invoked by Shift-Drag) on a thing clone the handle of the thing. (The
>dragItem is always the handle, the thing's "outside," not its "inside.")
>SPEC (ZZBoxVizType, rectangular view viz type): This should have a
>raster method taking ZZGraphics, x, y, prefwidth, prefheight, maxwidth,
>maxheight parameters and returning the width and height actually used
>(which may not be bigger than maxwidth and maxheight, even if the viz
>has to be clipped.) The different width and height parameters can be set
>to -1, which means "any width" and "any height;" but not both the
>prefwidth and prefheight parameters may be set to -1. The max parameters
>may be omitted (in which case the same function is called internally,
>with maxwidth and maxheight set to prefwidth and prefheight). The pref
>params mean "preferably not greater than."
>RATIONALE: This is intentionally very open, as basically *everything*
>should be optionally layoutable in a rect. The "not both prefs -1"
>constraint is used for everything arbritarily scaleable, like vector
>graphics. If you have a vector graphic with a width/height ratio of 2
>(i.e., two times as wide as high,) and get a prefwidth or prefheight,
>you can layout the stuff (and if the computed width or height is greater
>than the maxwidth or maxheight, you layout it smaller). If you have *no*
>values given (-1 -1 -1 -1), you can't layout the vector graphic, because
>it has no intrinsic size. If your thing has a fixed width and height, on
>the other hand (like bitmaps), you'll probably ignore prefwidth and
>prefheight, and only scale or clip if maxwidth or maxheight are smaller
>than your pic's w or h. -- You might also decide that it doesn't make
>sense to layout this pic this small, in which case you return {0, 0}.
>This is helpful when things are very "deep" inside the screen.
>CONSIDERATION: An optional "lighten" parameter might be useful, which is
>a fraction range 0 to 1; if it is one, an empty box is drawn. This would
>be used for the vanishing rasters.
>"SPEC" (ZZTextVizType): This should use the existing LineBreaker etc.
>stuff, with witch I'm not yet familiar, as mutch as possible.
>SPEC (Edit cursor): A view which is in editing mode has an edit cursor
>which accurses a cell inside the thing that is currently edited. For
>efficiency, edit cursors (and edit cursor stacks, see below) may be
>implemented virtually; this needs some modifications, but these should
>be straight-forward.
>SPEC (Edit cursor stack): Every time the edit cursor is given to a
>subthing, the old edit cursor is put on an edit cursor stack. Each view
>in edit mode has an edit cursor stack (which might be empty), a common
>list of cursor-cargo cells. When the edit cursor is given to a subthing,
>the subthing viz is called for a new edit cursor, returning its cargo
>cell; this is attatched in place of the old cargo cell, which is
>inserted on top of the edit cursor stack. When the edit cursor is given
>back to the next higher thing, the current edit cursor is destroyed and
>the last edit cursor is popped from the edit cursor stack. If there is
>no older edit cursor on the stack, the view quits editing mode.
>RATIONALE: A thing can have many handles (when cloned), and more than
>one of these handles might be placed on the same screen. For example, I
>could clone a figure two times in a thing cloud. Now, when the edit
>cursor is inside that thing, which of the clones on my screen do I edit?
>Oh, possibly I could show the insertion cursor in each one of them, but
>when I quit editing the figure, to which higher-level thing do I give
>the edit cursor back? To the one from which I reached the thing, of
>course, and keeping track of this is the responsibility of the edit
>cursor stack.
>SPEC (Requesting edit cursor): A viz may or may not accept the edit
>cursor. If it does can be found out by calling its boolean
>acceptEditCur() method. If it accepts the cursor, ZZCursor getEditCur()
>can be called, which creates a new edit cursor inside the thing. A viz
>type might specify other parameters to call getEditCur with; for
>example, ZZTextVizType specifies getEditCur(int pos), so that the edit
>cursor is positioned at the beginning when the insertion cursor comes
>from the left, and at the end (-1) when the insertion cursor comes from
>the right.
>SPEC (Requesting menu cell): To get the start cell of the thing's menu,
>the ZZCell getMenuCell() method is called. It may return null, in which
>case the thing doesn't have a menu. Menu cells may be requested only if
>a viz accepts the edit cursor.
>SPEC (Requesting key binding lists): A viz must define a method ZZCell[]
>getKeyBindingLists(). The cells returned by this method are the starting
>cells of key binding lists (the events are found poswards on d.2, and
>the corresponding actions are found poswards on d.1 from the events).
>The key binding lists are used in order: if the event isn't found in the
>first list, the second one is searched, then the third one etc. Key
>bindings lists may be requested only if a viz accepts the edit cursor.
>SPEC (Requesting sub viz): To request the visualization of a subthing
>inside the thing of a visualization, the ZZVisualization
>getSubViz(ZZCell handle) method is used. The handle given is the handle
>for the subthing, which must be placed inside the thing.
>RATIONALE: When the view wants to request the menu cell or key bindings
>list of the thing its edit cursor is in, it needs to call that thing's
>viz. Because the sub vizzes are generated by the higher-level vizzes to
>visualize their thing's subthings, the higher level vizzes need to be
>called for the lower-level vizzes.
>SPEC (Finding the viz associated with the edit cursor): Start with the
>highest level viz as the current viz. For every handle accursed by a
>cursor on the edit cursor stack, starting with the first item put on the
>stack: call the getSubViz method of the current viz with this handle.
>Set current viz to mean the viz returned by getSubViz.
Theodor Holm Nelson              
Project Professor, Keio University SFC Campus, Fujisawa, Japan
Visiting Professor, University of Southampton, England
 ?  e-mail: ted@xxxxxxxxxx   ?  world-wide fax 1/415/332-0136
 ?  http://www.sfc.keio.ac.jp/~ted/    ?  http://www.xanadu.net
 ? Coordinates in USA      Tel. 415/ 331-4422
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